You are not a member of this wiki.
Pages and Files
Add "All Pages"
10. Alexis Wilson
Essay Question # 10
Asses the accomplishments and failures of Margaret Thatcher as prime minister:
Early Life: Thatcher was born in 1925 in Lincolnshire. Her father was a grocer. She was very smart and awarded scholarships to university where she studied chemistry. She was a barrister (a judicial lawyer) before joining parliament.
Life on Parliament: she was a member of Edward Heath’s government. Initially she was a supporter of Heath and his monetary policy but eventually their relationship became sour towards one another. During her time with Heath’s government she cut back on milk allowances for school children, earning her the nickname “Margaret Thatcher-Milk Snatcher.” In the 79’ election Keith Joseph was elected the conservative party leader. Joseph was defeated but there was no clear majority. As a result, a second election was called for. Thatcher ran against Heath and gained the seat of Prime Minister.
Monetary Policy: Monetarism- Make the rich work harder by paying them more and make the poor work harder by paying them less. Control the money supply by not printing any money, increasing interest rates, lowering taxes for those on the top-end (basically, the opposite of Obama’s program). Including the VAT or Value Added Tax- an 18% tax on all goods and services.
Accomplishments: Argentina invaded the British-ruled Falkland Islands. The British fought back. This revived nationalistic sentiment in England, just in time for Thatcher’s second election. During her second term, Thatcher decided to privatize council housing. This was the most unsuccessful denationalization project. Although, Thatcher’s ministry is riddled with failures and upsets, many say that her efforts led to the recapitalization of England.
Failures: Due to Monetarism: Unemployment was jacked up to 12 percent, series of riots (Toxteth, Liverpool stemming from problems associated with poverty). In the Midlands region (including Birmingham and Wolverhampton) the metal fabrication factories weren’t nationalized but they did originally receive subsidiaries, Thatcher cut them off and they collapsed. In her second term, Thatcher denationalized several companies including: British Airways, electricity, gas, telecom and the rail network. By doing this, the prices went up and the service went down. Coal was also denationalized which led to several strikes. When Thatcher decided to sell off Westland Helicopter, she buried an Italian bid in favor of an American bid and later lied about it. During the war in the Falkland Islands the Belgrano was said to have been sunk in Argentinean Waters instead of National waters. Thatcher also disliked National Health, she knew she had to go along with it but tried to kill it by underfunding. This led to massive protests. Finally, she enacted the poll tax which eventually got her kicked out of office. She chose to enact the poll tax because local governments were so liberal with their cash. She wanted to ensure that they were only getting their money from the government and hence, the poll tax. This was the final straw and led to a conservative revolt against Thatcher when she “resigned” or, rather, was booted out.
As a result of the Thatcher years, conservatives have argued that Britain is no longer in a state of economic and political decline. Would you agree or disagree with this view?
Thatcher led to the recapitalization of Britain by forcing the companies to become independent rather than rely on the government for support. She also denationalized several industries allowing private industry to take over and run the show. Britain certainly has a stable economy and political system but I don’t know that I would argue that it’s better off with capitalism; it depends on whether you believe capitalism or something else, like the dreaded socialism, is the answer to economic woes.
3. Kameron Yorgason
4. Alexis Wilson
6. Travis Phillips
7. Jillena Freeman
8. Elizabeth Nolen
email@example.com. Lauren Call firstname.lastname@example.org
10. Catherine Caselman
11 Susan Nelson
12. Katie Schmoldt
13. Samantha Parkvold
14. Angela Dye
15. Matt Clark
16. Aubrey Brennan
17. Angela Fleming
18. Julie Winfree
19. Stephanie Huntsman
20. Nick Anderson
Post your essay answers under your name...If you could type your question above your answers that would be nice too. Also, try to get your answers up by this Saturday. I am going to need to take the test on Monday, and I know a few others who need to take it Monday too so the sooner you can get your info up the better. If you are having problems finding answer, let me know, and I will help you. Thanks,
Why were the Tories so reactionary in their approach to law and order, 1815-19, but then displayed a strong commitment to reform during the 1820. Assess the significance of their repressive policies and reforms.
-reactionary policies because of Napoleon's War and the Peterloo Massacre leads to the Six Acts which: suppresses freedom of speech, freedom to assemble unions, seriously curtails civilian freedoms, etc. Government is super conservative, policy makers are not interested in reform at all -during this period, Tories are associated with repression of popular discontent -became spit over the question of reform. Arguably, switch to reform may be seen as a political endeavor to secure power for the conservative Tories.
-Liverpool's ministry: 1812-1827: Reactionary attitude born of concern with defending British from invasion -limits ability to focus on reform -French/American wars incur huge debt of almost 9 million pounds -imposed income tax, but repealed in 1816 (not really reform: most politicians and landowners were the ones paying the income tax, so personal advantage involved, not necessarily non-reactionary -Corn laws: price of bread increases when trade declines -riots and protests result -peterloo massacre follows -have to take less reactionary stance if need popular vote
during this period, were known for reactionary policies and active suppression of rioters.
England after 1820:
The Tory Robert Peel sought to go more into reform with his systematic
reform of the Criminal code
(once the harshest in Europe on paper)
Discuss the significance of the reforms of the 1830s and early 1840s, beginning with Great Reform Bill and ending with the repeal of the Corn Laws.
Great reform Bill
Under Lord Grey (Whigs), New seats to large cities that had grown during the IR. Seats were taken away from “rotten boroughs”. Additionally the franchise was increased to include householders (from 5%-10% of population)
Abolition of Slavery
Spear headed by Wilberforce, hurt cities economically who depended on the slave trade. Created a problem for territories of the kingdom who depended on slaver labor, which lead to a decrease in productivity in those areas.
factory act, and mine act
Attempt to establish a regular work day in the textile industry. Especially focused on Children.
-No children under 9
-From ages 9-13, children couldn’t work more then 9 hrs a day
-13-18 = 12hours a day
- Eventually women, girls, and children not allowed in the mines
Poor Law Act
Whig proposal, lead by Edwin Chadwick, disciple of Bethom (advocate of government intervention). The act called for Workhouses for the relief of the poor, Parishes to be put into Poor Law Unions so relief could be provided more easily. Provisions of act also tried to stop discrimination against Catholics and non- conformist. The act resulted in easier access to help, but ultimately it was problematic because it couldn’t cope with “cyclical unemployment”.
Municipal Reform Act, (corporations act)
Established a uniform system of municipal boroughs to be governed by town councils elected by rate payers. The act allowed unincorporated towns to petition for incorporation. Towns in the North took advantage and became boroughs.
Bank Charter Act
restricted the powers of British banks and gave exclusive note-issuing powers to the central Bank of England. The Act served to restrict the supply of new notes reaching circulation, and gave the Bank of England an effective monopoly on the printing of new notes.
Repeal of the Corn Laws
With the lowering of import taxes grain was available at cheaper prices. Nations like the U.S. and Russia were able to export large quantities of grain, while England no longer had protectionism. Land dedicated to gain growing decreased because it was less profitable. Agricultural workers moved in greater numbers to the cities because there was less work in the country. Food became relatively cheaper and the middle and lower classes had more money to spend on other things.
4. Alexis Wilson
5.PCompare and contrast Bejamin Disraeli and William Gladstone as political leaders. Discuss their political ideologies as well as their successes and failures as politicians.
Gladstone = liberal whig. 2 ministries, 1st 1868-74, and 2nd 1884-85
: son of Liverpool merchant – family well to do because made fortune in slave trade but bothers young William. He goes to Oxford wants to be a minister but decides his life would be better spent as a politician.
He is ultra conservative and deeply religious -“greatest politician since the reformation” because the driving force of his life is religion. Starts conservative and becomes increasingly liberal.
1832 Reform Bill passed but Gladstone against it so becomes political ally of Sir Robert Peel. 1841 Gladstone is a financial wizard and becomes chancellor of Exchequer in Peel’s cabinet. Peel and him work together in Politics but outside the job they are apart because Peel is more “earthy” and not strictly religious. Gladstone passes budget that puts Great Britain on the road to free trade in consequence to repeal of Corn Laws.
Palmer dies in 1864 and 1865 Gladstone emerges as leader of liberal party and
1st ministry is 68-74
(refer to essay 6 for outline)
1867 Reform Bill passed but right after had an election and not enough time to get all registered so Gladstone won instead of Disraeli.
Had Disestablishment of the Irish Church, Abolition of Practice of Purchases, Education Act 1871,University Test Act, Civil Service Reform, Secret Ballot Act, Reform of Court System, Licensing Act
Reform Bill 1884 = agricultural workers are allowed to vote if house holders so increase the number of people who could vote to 28.5%
Reform Bill 1885 – equal proportional districts for House of Commons vote counts for the same and is a blow to the aristocracy but there is still power in the House of the Lords.
Gladstone in favor of Laissez faire (free trade)
Gladstone believed in reshaping society to be more fair and eliminate priveleges in public places, believed in monarchy but not liked by Victoria, didn’t like expanding the empire – favored little England
Worldly man, Jewish background. Baptized into Anglican Church at 12 yrs old but still has pride that Jewish he did not attend public school because he was Jewish so homeschooled. Curriculum taught by father. Disraeli wrote good and bad books but had difficulty making up his own characters so would borrow them from real life and this infuriated people
Enters politics in his 20s, first time fails but the second time a shoe-in because have patronage of a noble
Joined the Young England movement hoping for real reform but falls short because the younger generation lacked the votes to make a difference
1846 Disraeli rises to fame by opposing the repeal of the Corn Laws and claim Peel has abandoned his party and said Peel was a “political burglar of other men’s ideas”
propose Reform Bill of 1866, Tories take a leap in the dark and pass the reform bill and it started conservative but changed in the House of Commons to be radical to keep the working class from drifting to the liberals but Gladstone comes to power in 1868 anyway. Gladstone to power because the election occurred right after the bill was passed so people could not register to vote soon enough.
Constant Reform gives people more votes 1831 = 5% of the pop can vote. 1867 Reform Act = 16.4% can vote.
Trade Unions/Liability Act, Artisan and Dwelling Act 1875, Free Sale of Food and Drug Act
Disraeli important in shaping the ethos of conservatism. In 1870s had the Crystal Palace speech where he argues for the necessity that conservatives need to pass legislation for the sorking class and draw them to the Tory Party. He delivered a speech in favor of women’s suffrage but he didn’t push the issue.
Disraeli pro monarchy and had favorable relation with Queen Victoria.
Disraeli in favor of aggressive foreign policy, imperialism, and greatness of British empire
Disraeli’s reforms were not as far-reaching as Gladstone’s but still important
Gladstone went to the root of the establishment and cut perks and leveled the playing field
6. Travis Phillips
Why were Gladstone’s reforms (1868-1874) seen as such a threat to social classes and property interests? Do you agree or disagree that this was the case? How did Disraeli’s reforms of 1875 differ from those of the Grand Old Man of politics?
Gladstone’s Reforms (1868-1874)
Disestablishment of the Irish Church 1869
o This Act made it so those people in Ireland who were not members of the Anglican Church, like Catholics, were not forced to pay tithes to the Anglican Church.
Abolition of the Practice of Purchases
o This Act ended the ability of people to buy commissions within the military.
o Commissions were now to be based on talent instead of money.
Education Act of 1871
o This Act created “public” education in England.
o Public funds would be used to create schools in areas where schools were not already serviced by the Anglican Church.
University Test Act 1871
o Before this Act was passed people from a non-conformist background, those who did not belong to the Church of England, were very limited in their school choices.
o Most of the major universities were linked to the Church of England, like Oxford and Cambridge, and only members of the Church of England could attend those universities.
o Before this Act was passed people were not of the Church of England could not attend these major universities; they would have to go to some other university, possibly a non-denominational one.
o This Act opened up all universities to all student, not just those from the Church of England.
Civil Service Reform Act 1871
o Before this Act was passed positions in the Civil Service were basically a perk of the landed classes.
o This Act required an examination to be taken in order to enter the Civil Service. Now anyone could enter, not just the rich landed class.
o The only government agency not falling under this Act was the Foreign Office.
Secret Ballot Act 1873
o Eliminated open balloting.
o Votes were now done in private, people couldn’t know who you had voted for, which made it harder to intimidate voters and fix elections.
Reform of the Court System
o This Act stream-lined the court systems.
o The court systems would no longer be competing.
o You couldn’t move your case around from court to court forever as lawyers had done before.
Licensing Act 1874
o Attempted to say when drinking was allowed.
o Established hours for when you could drink and a curfew for when you had to leave the tavern or ale house and when you had to be home.
o This Act cause political uprising and basically collapsed Gladstone’s administration.
o People saw it as impinging on their freedoms.
These reforms were seen as a threat to social classes and property interests because they attempted to level the playing field. Gladstone was trying to take the power away from the landed class and make things more equal for those of lower classes.
Disraeli’s Reforms of 1875
Liability Act 1875
o Employers could now be held liable for the individual actions of its employees.
Artisan and Dwelling Act 1875
o Gave local authorities the opportunity for urban renewal.
o Old housing units could be destroyed and reformed.
o Insured adequate water supply, garbage services, etc.
o Contaminated food that was found in people’s houses was destroyed.
o Created markets, street lighting, etc.
o Attempted to modernize the horrible towns of the Industrial revolution.
Free Sale of Food and Drug Act 1875
o Forbade the sale of harmful food and drugs to people
o Opium for example
o This was the beginning of the modern drug store.
Disraeli’s reforms differed from Gladstone’s because his reforms were mostly common sense. There was no real opposition to them. They were not going to harm the power of the upper class like Gladstone’s did.
7. Jillena Freeman
Britain’s major motives for involvement in New Imperialism:
- “Painting the map pink.” Proud to be a part of the British Empire. Shows power and influence throughout the world.
White Man’s Burden
- extending benefits of Western Civilization to “uncivilized” peoples. Doing them a favor.
-British investors in Americas, not so much in Africa. Africa was capital intensive (needed to build roads etc.)
- Suez canal (Anglo-French-Egyptian) 1869. Cut off week from trip to British India. King of India sold England his share of the canal for 4,000,000 pounds. This made the French rivals mad, British now had 2/3 share and could control the decisions made about the canal essentially a monopoloy. Egypt became a protectorate of Britain, British controlled finances, police force in the name of Egyptian ruler.
Rhode’s dream for a railroad from Cape Town to Cairo- blocked by Germans
British Somalia protected water passage to Indian Ocean
7. Lauren Call
What were the major motives for Britain’s involvement in New Imperialism. What patterns do you see in Britain’s territorial acquisitions?
Need more on the patterns
1. Nationalism: Painting the map pink
2. White Man’s Burden
Extending the benefits of western civilization to native people
Somewhat contrived, but looked upon as a principle motive for imperialism
David Livingstone: Friend of the African People? What were his accomplishments?
o Best loved European of the people of Central Africa
o Missionary who explored the Zambizi River to the coast of Africa
Wanted to spread the gospel
o Resigned his membership of the London missionary society because they didn’t understand the splendors of Africa
o Was the first white man to see Victoria Falls… with the help of his African friends
o Was laid at Susiantuma? (the first Catholic mission)
o Believed that black people could be made equal to white people with both Christianity and commerce
3. Profit Motive
British did not invest in Africa
o Invested most of their money in the United States
o Financed the Union Pacific Railways
o Invested heavily in Australia and New Zealand
In Africa there was no infrastructure… cost intensive if you wanted to take advantage of the resources in Africa
Africa had to wait for infrastructure investments
o Came to south Africa at the age of 17
o The path to great personal wealth came from personal power—took control of the diamond industry
Bought other men’s claims when funds were low
o Planned British rule from Cairo to Cape Town
4. Strategic Motive
Robinson and Gallagher: Book on the British Empire, centered in on the strategic motive as the driving force for imperialism
Suez Canal: Anglo-French-Egyptian Endeavor
o 1869—was built
o Literally cut weeks from the voyage of Europe into Asia—particularly India
Very important waterway
o Years later the king of Egypt was bankrupt
Squandered the revenue that he had made from the Canal endeavor
Decided that the time was ripe to sell his share of the canal
Didn’t have any right to make the deal, because Parliament was out of session
Disraeli was able to cobble the money together and made the purchase
Gave the British control over the Suez Canal—2/3 share
To the British Imperialism in Africa took the form of trying to protect the Suez waterway and the Nile River
British Somalia was taken over in order to protect the very important waterway passage into the Indian Ocean
o Also controlled much of the African coast of the Red Sea
8. Elizabeth Nolen
Why did many late Victorian Englishmen come to see liberalism of mid-century as a failure? What were the major manifestations of discontent with liberal ideology?
The Victorian age, also known as the age of reforms, saw many political transformations, where both political parties were set out to make changes to England. The liberal party seemed to maintain control for the majority of the Victorian age; with all the opportunities the liberals had to make changes they failed to achieve their most sought after goals. The liberals from the start had policies they wished to implement, after trying many ways they were unable to get many of their policies passed or the policies they were able to pass were not to the degree they desired.
House of Lords untouched-
Secret Ballot Act
Lord George brought in a budget which introduced a super-tax for those incomes above L2000, Lords were able to reject it.
Asquith launched a bill which curtailed the right of the Lords to oppose any money bill (any bill which passed the commons 3 times became law, regardless of rejection by the Upper House)
Life of Parliament was shortened from seven to five years
The liberals were able to make some difference but not enough to make a dramatic change.
Church of England not disestablished
They tried to break off from the Church of England with Education Acts but they still dominated the education system.
University test act
No local government
Eight hour work day for miners
Sea of Strikes in 1912- forced the liberal party down the road of wage regulation
Trades Disputes Act (1906)- granted trade unions full legal immunity
Merit as the base of society
The House of Lords still had power and those with money were still being elected into positions.
State had no role to play in controlling economic and social policy-
Education Reform Bill of 1870
Death Duties (the state could tax capital)
Old Age Pensions (a government allowance of five shillings a week for those over seventy)
Labor Exchanges (finding work for the unemployed)
National Insurance Bill(1911)- payment to workers during sickness,
Even with all the changes, British society didn’t change dramatically, 1% of the pop still owned 66% of all the property, only a million people paid an income tax.
10. Catherine Caselman
By 1906 however the mood of the public had changed away from conservative imperialism & also some of the Cons leaders were unpopular & so that in 1906 you have the largest landslide victory for any political party in modern British political history. Liberals came in with an overwhelming majority & what they considered to be a mandate of the people. The Prime Minister, at least in the early years of Lib Government, was a man by the name of Henry Campbell-Bannerman, who was known to be an excellent party man, who behind the scenes, was able to forge together a unity in the cabinet amongst a lot of very brilliant politicians. CB, during the brief time he was PM was sort of credited with this sense of unity, but in 1908 CB was forced to resign because of ill health & he was succeeded by the Chancellor of the Exchequer one of these really brilliant guys, Herbert Asquith, who was the PM from 1908 until he was ousted in a Lib/Cons coup by David Lloyd George in 1916 during WW1. It was thought Asquith was not up to the task of really providing for victory & so, by so doing the Lib Party was split, & from 1916 onwards Asquith was seething over David Lloyd George’s betrayal & so from that time forth you have the Asquith Libs & the Lloyd-George Libs & they really didn’t come together after the War, which led to a permanent split in the party which partially explains the decline of the Lib Party in the 1920s.
Asquith was a very good parliamentary leader although we’re going to see he was adamantly against granting the franchise to women, & most of the Lib Party was in favor of that, but you couldn’t overcome Asquith’s opposition, & as a result we’ll see votes for women did not happen at this time.
David Lloyd George was the so-called Welsh wizard, he was a man of with a radical streak. He wanted to improve the lot of the common people & was the driving force of the Lib social reforms during this particular time. Winston Churchill was also involved to some extent, in those kind of reforms.
DLG came out in favor of a policy of old age pensions in 1908, this was sort of similar to what happened in the US in the 1930s with the passage of pensions for seniors in the US. It was a modest bill for persons of over 70 with an income of no more than 10 shillings a week, were given 5 shillings weekly or for elderly couples this was increased to 7 shillings & six pence. That’s not a really generous pension for old age but certainly doesn’t compare to American social security even in its infancy but it was a beginning in that direction. Then LG turned his attention to how to pay for the pensions bill so what happened is that he decided in favor of what was called the people’s budget of 1909. It was really controversial. He didn’t really tax the unemployed or anything like that, the tax really was on unearned increment, people of property, who for example, if you sold a piece of property, & let’s just say you sold it for a thousand pounds to give you an idea what this meant, and let’s say in the 1890s you borrowed 1,000 pds and you had paid back 500 pounds of it. This would mean 500 pounds of unearned increment that would be paid to the state & this, the middle classes thought to be unfair. There were other provisions that were controversial but that was the main one that LG attempted to use for financing the old age pension. Well, there was a revolt by the Lords over LG’s budget. Now normally the House of Lords merely rubber-stamped what the House of Commons passed in terms of budgetary measures, but this they considered to be open class warfare & of course against their interests, i.e. the landed gentlemen of England who still occupied most of the House of Lords and so in an unprecedented event vetoed the budget. This created a constitutional crisis which lasted until 1911 when, after an election & promise from the king that he would create new Liberal peers if the Lords did not acquiesce in passing the reform of the House of Lords, that’s what it was, it was essentially (when) LG and the Liberals decided that the House of Lords should no longer be used by the Conservative Party to block Liberal measures, and so the Lords were essentially given a suspensive veto, that is to say they could veto a measure but if it passed through the H of C three times in successive sessions it would automatically become law in spite of what the Lords did. So the power of the H of L, which, up to this time, was in a way equal to the H of C, was essentially done away with. So the Lords became nothing more than the watchdog of the constitution, no longer are they really able to put forth a program of opposition, although technically the H of L could still introduce legislation but the problem is that if the Lords introduces legislation it was virtually impossible for them to get any kind of time on the calendar for the H of C to discuss it unless it was a measure that was overwhelmingly popular, so the Lords were sort of put in their place by the Liberals in 1911. Now in 1911, Lloyd George also decided in favor of the so-called National Insurance Act 1911, this had two parts to it, the first part was partly controversial because it had been tried on the Continent, for example in Germany before. LG had a scheme that workers, not their families, had to be employed in an industry and would be given medical insurance & here you have opposition to some extent from the doctors but that was rapidly overcome. The second part of the 1911 Insurance Act was more controversial, and new. It was that unemployment insurance, for the first time in any country. Workers and employers would have to pay into it, and the government would subsidize it. So as a result workers were given 7 shillings per week for a maximum of 15 weeks in any 12-month period, so 15 weeks of unemployment at 7 shillings, which once again was not terribly generous but probably at that time would have been enough to “keep the wolf away from the door”, as the saying goes. Now, that was sort of the high point of the Liberal legislation of this particular period.
Winston Churchill’s system of labor exchanges that are sort of similar to what used to be called the unemployment bureau in the United States but it’s now the Dept. of Human Resources. Where employers would provide information on jobs and workers could come in and apply for the jobs. So these were all important measures in terms of Britain’s movement towards a welfare state, but obviously the Liberals were not intending to create a welfare state in the modern sense of the word.
While this was going on there was severe unrest - what underlay labor unrest was the obvious fact that employers and corporations were doing particularly well during this period but wages particularly among unskilled workers were lagging behind inflation, and so as a result this, coupled with the fact of radical trade union activity, there were a series of strikes, particularly in the mining industry. The coal miners, general transport workers, those who were on city buses and trams, railway workers and so on went on strike at this particular time and almost essentially disrupted the economy and that is to say, led to a standstill in terms of the economy, but it didn’t quite come to that.
The Liberals were a mixture of men of private means, trade unionists, and professional politicians drwn from occupations like law or journalism (not landowners). They awarded MPS a salary of 400pds per year., thus enabling the working class to aspire to a political career.
1906 Trades Disputes Act granted trade unions full legal immunity.
1906 School Meals Act enabled local authorities to provide free school meals.
1907 probation for offenders was introduced.
Also passed - 8 /12 hour days for minters & Children under 14 were no longer to be sent to prison & Borstal system set up to deal with young offenders.
11 Susan Nelson
Question # 11
In discussing the issues of trade union unrest, Ireland, and the suffragette question, the historian George Dangerfield has argued that the Liberals (1906-1914) were ideologically unable to come to grips with the major issues posed by these movements and that the consequence was devastating to the future of the Liberal Party. Would you agree or disagree with Dangerfield’s thesis? Why?
I would agree with Dangerfield’s thesis. At the beginning of the 20th century, England’s empire spanned the globe, its economy was strong, and its political system seemed immune to the ills that inflicted so many other countries. The Liberal Party favored social reform, person liberty, reducing the powers of the Crown and the Church of England, and an extension of the franchise. The new Liberalism began to appear in the mid to late 1880’s and it became increasingly common for Liberal Party to favor an increased role for the state to take care of the people rather than the classical liberal stress on self-help and freedom of choice. Liberalism believed in personal liberty with support for government intervention to provide minimum levels of welfare. After a resounding electoral triumph in 1906, the Liberals formed the government of the most powerful nation on earth, yet within a few years:
The House of Lords lost its absolute veto over legislation. The House of Lords did not like the Old Age Pension Bill 1908, which was a tax on unearned increment. This taxed the landed gentlemen so the House of Lords used their veto power against the bill. This created a constitutional crisis which lasted until 1911, when after an election and promise from the King; he would create new liberal peers if the House of Lords did not pass the reform. The Lord’s still had veto power, but if it passed 3 times in the House of Commons, it would become law. Before the power of the House of Lords was equal with the House of Commons. Now, the Lords became nothing more than the watchdogs of the constitution.
The Home Rule crisis brought Ireland to the brink of Civil War and led to an army mutiny. The Home Rule Bill was introduced in 1912, but did not become law until the first year of the war. This bill proposed the creation of an autonomous Irish Parliament in Dublin. A paramilitary group formed – the Ulster Volunteers – to fight against the British Government and the Home Rule Bill. The commander of the Curragh Base was ordered by the War Office in London to start preparations to move troops to Ulster to deal with any violence that might break out. The Commander, Sir Arthur Paget, misinterpreted his orders for precautionary deployments as an immediate order to march against Ulster. Paget offered the officers under his command the choice of resignation rather than fighting the Ulster Volunteers. Out of 70 British Army Officers, 57 resigned rather than enforce the Home Rule Act. Asquith’s Liberal government backed down, claiming an “honest misunderstanding,” and the men were reinstated.
The campaign for women’s suffrage created widespread civil disorder and discredited the legal and penal systems. Most of the Liberal Party supported women’s suffrage, but Asquith was against it. During the Victorian Era, women were thought to be inferior to men, incapable to vote. The Liberals were in favor of female suffrage, but wanted to treat it as an appendage to some further reform of the male franchise. Two groups were formed to support women’s suffrage. Mrs. Emmeline Pankhurst was the leader of the more militant Women’s Social and Political Union. Mrs. Pankhurst said the most cogent argument in modern politic was the broken pane of glass – she encouraged women to do naughty things, which did more harm than good in the advancement of their cause. Millicent Fawcett was the leader of the National Union of Women’s Suffrage Societies. Their campaign was moderate by approaching Parliamentarians and trying to convince them of the right for women to vote, in other words they worked within the system and were more successful.
An unprecedented wave of strikes swept the land. Employers and corporations were doing well at this time, but wages, particularly among the unskilled workers, were lagging behind inflation. There were a series of strikes in the mining industry and the transport industry, which disrupted the economy. The Liberals tried to negotiate with their old laissez-faire attitudes which were out of touch with the modern realities of the industrial relations. Wage regulations caused the Liberal government to lose more ground.
Adding to the death of the Liberal Party in England was when Herbert Asquith was ousted in 1916 by David Lloyd George’s betrayal. From that time forward you had two liberal parties, the Asquith Liberals and the George Liberals. They did not come together after the war which partially explains the decline of the Liberal Party in the 1920’s.
12. Katie Schmoldt
1. Why were the Tories so reactionary in their approach to law and order, 1815-19, but then displayed a strong commitment to reform during the 1820’s? Assess the significance of their repressive policies and reforms.
1815-1819 Lord Liverpool-
generally opposed to reform at home.
After the Napoleonic War (1815-1819) the British Government was very reactionary and conservative. Passed the Corn Laws to protect British corn prices from cheaper foreign prices. The war had caused
which were exacerbated by the
implemented in 1915 (that were put into effect to protect corn prices in Britain). By the beginning of 1819 the problems generated by poor economic conditions and the lack of
enhanced the appeal of
for a lot of British citizens. Result: The Peterloo Massacre at St Peter's Field, in Manchester on August 16, 1819. A crowd of 60,000–80,000 gathered to demand the reform of parliamentary representation. The Tory run government reacted to this with violence and sent in military authorities to put down the insurrection.
In order to prevent further disturbances Liverpool and the Tories demonstrated a new commitment to reform and passed the Six Acts in 1819.
- The Training Prevention Act
- The Seizure of Arms Act
- The Misdemeanors Act
- The Seditious Meetings Prevention Act
- The Newspaper and Stamp Duties Act
*Basically these labeled any meeting for
reform as an act of treason.
The Liverpool administration was very repressive and for good reason (were uneasy about large crowds and radicals after what had happened with the French revolution), but the corn laws, peterloo massacre, and six acts went a bit far.
It revealed the landed elite’s determination to maintain control.
Eventually the aristocracy began to see that they needed to give in to reform. They hadn’t forgotten what happened in france when the bourgeoisie took over and they did not want to be taken out (and the Tory majority was withering by 1828). It became advantageous to give in to reform.
in the 1820’s
Robert Peel entered the cabinet in 1822 as
and introduced a number of important reforms for British criminal law. Most memorable was his establishment of the
Metropolitan Police Force
Metropolitan Police Act 1829
). He also reformed the
, reducing the number of crimes
punishable by death
, and simplified it by repealing a large number of criminal
and consolidating their provisions into what are known as
. He reformed the gaol system, introducing payment for
and education for the inmates. Peel established the
Metropolitan Police Force
for London based at
in 1829 (became known as bobbies or peelers).
The Tories went from being ultra conservative and reactionary to reformers out of necessity, to keep their party in power. They submitted their own reforms rather than allowing liberal reforms which they believed would be much worse.
2. Angela Dye
Discuss the significance of the reforms of the 1830s and early 1840s, beginning with the Great Reform Bill and ending with the repeal of the Corn Laws.
1. Reform Bill (1832)
a. Whigs were the majority in parliament under Lord Grey
b. Riots prompted the Whigs to pass this bill
c. 66 boroughs lost their seats in parliament, which ultimately made the parliament better represented.
i. The remaining seats were balanced—new seats were given to large cities that grew during the Industrial Revolution
d. Franchise was increased to include householders, which made it so more of the population could vote (upper/middle class)
2. Factory Act (1833)
a. Passed for the treatment of young people in the factories
i. Since children worked so many hours during the week, they didn’t have an opportunity for rudimentary education—Sunday was the only day they could possibly learn because of Sunday School.
b. The act wanted to cut down hours for the youngest children, but it didn’t actually provide education for the children
i. Children under 9 were banned from working
ii. Children 9-13 could only work 9 hours a day
iii. Children 13-17 could work 12 hours a day
c. There were factory inspectors to enforce the bill
3. Poor Law Reform (1834)
a. The old poor law provided local relief in each parish
b. Edwin Chadwick proposed the bill to provide cheaper relief and to discourage poverty
i. Created less eligibility: conditions of workhouses should be worse/lower than outside jobs. One step below the worst jobs in open society
ii. Wanted a national system rather than local: national audit control
iii. The people in the workhouses could not have outdoor relief of any kind: they had to stay in the workhouse
4. Corporations Act (1835)
a. To eliminate form of government through boroughs
b. Allowed towns to petition for incorporation
5. Mines Act (1845)
a. It was based on moral issues—one of the most important political problems
i. They were worried about the effect of the system on women because their human nature was degraded—the way of dress was indecent
b. They weren’t interested in the conditions of the mines
c. As a result, women and children were banned from working in the mines
6. Repeal of Corn Laws (1846)
a. Needed to repeal the corn laws in order to get out of recession
b. Import taxes were lowered so grain was available at cheaper prices
c. Food became cheaper, so low and middle classes had more money
d. Peel’s decision split the Tory party—some accused him of treason
3. Matt Clark
What is meant by Victorianism? What were the major cultural successes of Victorianism? What were the major cultural drawbacks of this movement?
-Victorianism is the time of the reign of Queen Victoria (1837-1901) and encompasses all the political, art, and culture accomplishments/changes of that era as well as the attitudes of the people.
-4 Major points of emphasis in Victorian Age
*Respectability-Forthright behavior in public, dressing properly, treating others appropriately, attempting to gain as much education as possible.
*Self-Help-God helps those who help themselves, Commoners need to make their own way in order to enjoy prosperity. Don’t give into drunkenness or spend all your money, save for a rainy day.
*Gospel of work
*Seriousness of character
-During the time the middle class became the trend setters and an educated middle class developed.
-This time was a long period of prosperity for the British Empire also labeled as Pax Britannica.
-Prominent men of the era included Sir Robert Peel, Lord Derby, William Gladstone, Benjamin Disraeli, and Lord Salisbury.
-Major Cultural successes
*Reform Act (which was passed in 1832, 5 years before Victoria but many still claim it part of the Victorian Age); Mines Act of 1842 banned women and children from working in the mines; Repeal of the corn laws 1846; the 1st world’s fair held at the crystal palace in 1851; Reform bills aimed at expanding voting rights to more people in 1867 and 1884; Cut out buying of commissions in the military ending a lot of aristocratic patronage; Elementary Education Act giving free basic education to child under 10 -1871; trade unions gain more influence-Dock strikes in London 1889
-Major Cultural Drawbacks
*A population boom led to problems with overcrowding, unemployment, slums, poverty, poor sanitary conditions, slums, and child labor. These were more significant problems in the early years of the age and led to many of the reforms and changes listed above. However, poverty remained a huge problem-Study in 1900 put poverty at places like York around 28%, London at 30% and rural villages at 34%. Imperialism in Africa led to war with the Zulus and other Africans-Cecil Rhodes was an important figure in this. Karl Marx and Robert Owen gain followings as socialist authors (this could be considered a cultural success depending on your political preference). Marx spent time in British museum working on Das Capital. Owen was more of a gradualist.
*Articles about this topic-Victorian and Victorianism by George Lando
Some notes from the Lando article:
*In science and technology, the Victorians invented the modern idea of invention -- the notion that one can create solutions to problems, that man can create new means of bettering himself and his environment.
*In religion, the Victorians experienced a great age of doubt, the first that called into question institutional Christianity on such a large scale
*More than anything else what makes Victorians Victorian is their sense of social responsibility, a basic attitude that obviously differentiates them from their immediate predecessors, the Romantics.
4. Jennifer Crapse
4. Who were the major critics of Victorianism values? What did they see wrong with the Victorian age?
was a critic of Victoria age. Many of his stories were satires about society. There were all kinds of characters that showed Dickens feelings of Victorianism. In his book “Hard Times” There was Mr. Gradgrine (?) the industrialist who was portrayed as the mean bad character. Also, Great expectations was anti Victorian because it contradicted the idea that if you work hard, you will receive your reward. In the real ending of Great Expectations, Pip did not end up with the girl, however, good does prevail in most of Dickens’s book. Other characters: David Copperfield showed the blight of the child in the work house and how he was brutalized by his cruel school master (this was all anti-Victorianism).
What he saw was wrong
: He saw the hypocracy of society. He saw that Victorian reforms were not actually improving much of society. He saw the focus on the outward appearance at the expense of the inner man and he also saw the other extreme of the overly religious zealot that took Victorian age harshness and conformity too far.
Matthew Arnold “Dover Beech” (BB document
)- He was saying that religion only exists in the privet sphere but in the public it is going away with the tide. This is interesting because we think of Victorianism being associated with religious fervor. However, the Victorians did not go to church much. The religious census of 1831 showed that around half of the population was not going to church, and almost none of the working class people went to church, so what Arnold was saying seemed to be true. This was a sort of attack on religion.
What he saw as wrong
: He catches that on the public sphere there was this outward display of a moral church going people in the Victorian age when that simply was not the case.
John Ruskin (BB document)
what did he have to say about urban blight? He was a famous art and architecture critic of the Victorian age. He talked about his disgust for the sea of smog that settled over an industrial revolution based town. He also saw the connection between the new house units being built up and the industrial revolution and noted how bleak these homes appeared. He was the most pronounced critic of industrial style
. What he saw as wrong
: He thought that it was wrong that industrial progress came at the expense of living conditions (societal progress) and architecture (societal arts).
German Biblical Criticism:
In Victorian Christianity you were an evangelical who believe in personal religion followed by inerrancy of the bible. This was a counter to German biblical criticism in the 1840’s.
What the German Biblical critics thought was wrong
: They felt it was wrong that, for example, the Victorians felt there was no contradiction in the gospels even though there obviously was contradiction.
which was “designed to undermine the foundation on which the age that brought war had been built.” Strachey set out to show Victorians “as the hypocrites...neurotics” and conniving, ambitious individuals that they really were in his eyes.
What he saw was wrong
: He thought it was wrong that historians made these Victorian era figures out to be more heroic, selfless and amazing than they actually were. He felt that it was for this reason that Victorianism and its values was being perpetuated and to him Victorianism was full of characteristics that were bad and should not be emulated.
5. Aubrey Brennan
Compare and contrast Bejamin Disraeli and William Gladstone as political leaders. Discuss their political ideologies as well as their successes and failures as politicians.
Scot by decent
Man of high principle
Not a revolutionary, he revered monarchy and aristocracy
Called Grand Old Man
introduced a competiative examiniation for entrance into Ciivil Service
abolished the purchase of commissions in the army
Education Reform Bill of 1870
o Allowed the setting up of schools but the education department in any distract where provisions was either not effiecnt or suitable
energies were taken up with Ireland
attack with House of Lords ended in failure
-His government had carried through forward-looking, social legislation which responded directly to the public’s mood at that time
The House of Lords remained untouched
The Church of England was not disestablished
He promised to introduce local gov. but it never happened
He ensured new politics with a strong moral dimension
Stared off life as a baptized Jew
Genius and he knew it
Great showman, like Gladstone, reverence for the past
Became Prime Minister in 1874
Lost election in 1880 due to prevailing economic depression
Died in 1881
Employers and Workmen Act of 1875
o Put both the employers and employees on equal footing for the first time
Conspiracy and Protection of Property Act (1875)
o Freed trade unions
o Made striking no longer an offense
Artisan’s Dwelling Act
o Empowered local authorities to purchase land compulsorily for building and rehousing people at a reasonable rent
6. Angela Fleming
7. Julie Winfree
Britain's main motives for Imperialism (taken mostly from the video we watched) were economic but some were Christian or the White Man's Burden and involved or turned into warfare.
Strong 473 "Colonisation occurred in a haphazard way beginning with coastal trading bases and them gradually spreading inland.
Cecil Rhodes believed great personal wealth led to great personal power.
1870s he fought and conquered the Zulus for their land.
1890 he defeated the Matabele with he help of missionaries.
David Livingstone as a missionary, referred to the White Man's Burden to civilize the people.
Other missionaries had to choose between Africans and whites when dealing with King Lobengula of the Matabele.
Strategic motives included the annexation of Egypt in 1882 because they owned the Suez Canal and it was easier to get to India which was also a colony at this time.
8. Stephanie Huntsman
9. Nick Anderson
Trace the gradual evolution of politics towards democracy in the 19th and early twentieth centuries
Reform bill of 1832 (supported by upper middle class) came in despite Tory opposition. Whigs targeted 56 boroughs which lost representation in Parliament completely. 30 more reduced to one member instead of 2. 80 seats left up to new pop. representation. Gave those seats to many industrial revolution area. Gave a 3rd seat to all the English counties. They also had 40 schilling tenets who were part of the middle class (but they just voted to dictates of aristocracy) *In town or boroughs, anybody who owned land worth 10 pounds could vote (most workers had 5 pounds worth) This bill took voting from 5% to 7% (Now 400,000 could vote)
-1835, Corporations Act was repealed which excluded dissenters and Roman Catholics from holding office *This set the stage for democracy
-Also the Catholic Emancipation which meant that Catholic peers could once again sit in the Lords and that Catholics could be elected to the Commons-In 1831 – 5%
-1832- 7.1% (with passage of reform bill of 1832, modest bill)
-1867-16.4% (Disraeli passes second reform bill)
-1884-28.5% (Third Reform Act- Gladston 2 Acts passed as reform bill of 1884-1885. Agricultural workers were allowed to vote if they were home owners)
-1918-74% (WWI, and women replace men in factories and all women who held property under their own right could vote)
-Elizabeth Faucet- Conservative. National Union of Women, moderate, convincing, persuading within the system
-Emiline Pancurst- Radical. WPSU (Women Social and Political Union) – encouraged all women to go to office and pour syrup down mail shoots and put gum on it. Storm the house of commons. Went into National gallery and slashed pictures to bits.
-1928-96.9% (Equal Franchise Act, Flapper Bill, now all women can vote)
Disraeli- crystal palace speech, necessary for tory’s to pass bills for lower middle class and working class
-1868 speech- favoring votes for women
Gladston-believed in shaping society to be more fair, eliminate privileges in public places
help on how to format text
Turn off "Getting Started"